A Level Psychology : Do You Remember What You Saw?

A Level Psychology : Do you remember what you saw?

by

KMcAvoy

Eyewitness Testimony

One practical application of memory research has been in the field of eyewitness testimony (EWT). Inaccurate EWT can have serious consequences leading to wrongful convictions and even the death penalty in the US. Rattner (1988) reviewed 205 cases of wrongful arrest and found that this was due to mistaken EWT in 52% of cases. There has been much research carried out into why EWT can be unreliable and the various factors that can affect it.

YouTube Preview Image

The problem is that memory is not a static record of an event. Unlike photographic or CCTV evidence, memory is an active process and there is evidence that our previous experiences, the stereotypes we hold and the emotion we felt at the time of an event can change the way in which that memory is laid down. If that were not bad enough, post-event information can change our memories of an event so that it is very difficult to know which is the original memory and which is the altered one. For example, suppose you have a memory of your 5th birthday party and one day you are discussing this with your mother. You talk about a gift you received from Uncle Frank and how much you liked it at the time. However, your mother says ‘no that was from Uncle Steven; Uncle Frank didn’t come to your 5th party’. Now your memory for the event has been challenged with the post-event information given to you by your mother. You will now return the record to LTM in an altered form i.e. with Uncle Steven giving you the gift!

This alteration of memory after the event has far reaching implications for the accuracy of EWT. If witnesses were given wrong or misleading information during questioning, it could have the potential to change their recollection of an event. One of the most prolific researchers into EWT is American psychologist, Elizabeth Loftus. Loftus and Palmer (1974) devised an experiment to find out if leading questions could bias how a witness answers. They showed participants a film of a car accident and then asked them how fast the cars were travelling when they hit each other. All participants were asked the same question except that the word ‘hit’ was replaced with ‘smashed’, collided, ‘bumped’ or ‘contacted’. The findings showed that the word used in questioning affected the estimations of speed given by the participants.

When asked one week later if they had seen any broken glass in the original film, participants who had been given the word ‘smashed’ were more likely to answer ‘yes’ even though there had been no glass in the film!

This shows that even subtle changes to the wording of a question can affect EWT. However, some researchers have argued that the effect of leading questions is not so pronounced in real-life. Yuille and Cutshall (1986) interviewed 13 witnesses to a real-life shooting involving a store owner and an armed robber. The storeowner was wounded but recovered. The robber was shot dead. The interviews showed that witnesses gave impressively accurate accounts even months after the event and that misleading questions had no effect on memory. These results are not consistent with Loftus’s laboratory findings. Perhaps this is because Loftus’s participants knew that the crash was not real and, therefore, were not as emotionally affected as they would be in real life. Also, the participants in the lab were expecting to see a film of an event and so would be more prepared than people in real-life situations.

This article has been put together by the distance learning organisation Start Learning who are experts in home study.

If you want to find out more about A Level Psychology or many other distance learning courses please browse their website:

Start Learning

Kerrana McAvoy

Academic Director – Start Learning Start Learning

Article Source:

A Level Psychology : Do you remember what you saw?

Day 1 report of Wikimania 2006

This article mentions the Wikimedia Foundation, one of its projects, or people related to it. Wikinews is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation.

Sunday, August 6, 2006

Wikimania 2006 is the second annual Wikimedia conference. Hosted by the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at the Harvard Law School campus in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it began August 4 and will run until August 6.

Wikimania began with a keynote presentation from Jimmy Wales, the founder of Wikipedia and the Wikimedia Foundation. Wales played a short portion of a clip from a recent episode of U.S. television program The Colbert Report discussing Wikipedia. In the clip, Colbert says that “any website that has a longer entry on truthiness than Lutheranism has got its priorities straight.” His keynote continued by re-emphasising Wikimedia’s mission, as stated by Wales in a Slashdot interview: “Imagine a world in which every single person on the planet is given free access to the sum of all human knowledge. That’s what we’re doing”.

Wales stated that Wikipedia is “not as good as Britannica — yet”. Additionally, he also stated that in the coming year, Wikipedia will be making “a turn towards quality”. “We have always had this goal, but we all know we’re not there yet – in the coming years one of the themes is going to be a turn towards quality.” said Wales.

He then introduced Brad Patrick, the general counsel and recently-appointed interim CEO of Wikimedia. Patrick said he found Wikimedia after reading Wales’ list Ten Things That Will Be Free on Lawrence Lessig‘s blog. After discovering the Wikimedia Foundation, Patrick emailed Wales about meeting for lunch. He had lunch with Wales a few months later and was hired as general counsel shortly after.

Wales went on to describe Wikia, the company he co-founded with Angela Beesley. He announced that Wikia has received venture capital, allowing them to hire full-time engineers to work on the MediaWiki software. He emphasized that Wikia, has “a total commitment to free knowledge and respect for communities.”

Later, Wales announced that the One Laptop Per Child project will be including Wikipedia as the first element in the content repository. He also announced that the board has approved Wikiversity as “a center for the creation and use of free learning materials and activities”. Wikiversity will “create and host a range of free-content multilingual learning materials for all age groups in all languages”. It will be launched soon with a three language, six month, beta trial period.

Wales described a project called Wikiwyg: a WYSIWYG editor for the wiki. Wikiwyg is an attempt to make the wiki easier to edit. “An intelligence test by making it hard to edit, just does not work,” noted Wales. While the release date is uncertain both Wikia and Socialtext are devoting full-time engineers to the project.

Wales emphasized the need to focus on quality. He also briefly discussed the commitment in the German Wikipedia to rolling out a stable version. He stated that if we do not have it rolled out by next year’s keynote “we are making a big mistake”.

Wales finished his keynote by giving an update on his Ten Things That Will Be Free and proposing “that the foundation seek funding to hire community coordinator and recruiters for important languages where we currently do poorly”.

This article features first-hand journalism by Wikinews members. See the collaboration page for more details.
This article features first-hand journalism by Wikinews members. See the collaboration page for more details.

Other notable speakers included Ward Cunningham, Lawrence Lessig, Eben Moglen and many members of the Wikimedia communities.

The day wrapped up with a poster reception and a party celebrating Wikia’s 250,000 articles and Wikia’s founders Angela Beesley and Jimmy Wales birthdays.

Archived copies of many of the presentations are available on the Wikimania wiki.

Portland, Oregon mayor admits to sexual relationship he previously denied

Wednesday, January 21, 2009

After an investigation by the Portland, Oregon weekly newspaper Willamette Week, mayor Sam Adams admitted he did have a sexual relationship with Beau Breedlove in 2005. The openly gay mayor said Breedlove was 18 years of age when the sexual relationship began, however the two met when Breedlove was still a minor. Adams also admitted he previously lied about the relationship and asked Breedlove to also lie about the relationship during the time Adams was running for mayor. The Oregon Attorney General‘s office is investigating the matter.

“In the past, I have characterized my relationship with Beau Breedlove as purely nonsexual. That is not true. Beau Breedlove and I had a sexual relationship for a few months in the summer of 2005 after he turned 18 years of age. I want to apologize to the people of Portland for my dishonesty and for embarrassing them. My job now is to come clean — I mucked it up — and to press forward,” said Adams in a statement to the media.

Newspapers such as The Oregonian, Just Out, the Portland Tribune, and the Portland Business Journal, as well as the Portland Police Union have called for Adams to resign. Others such as city commissioner Randy Leonard and Multnomah County district attorney Michael Schrunk want an investigation to be launched into Adams’ actions. Portland commissioner Randy Leonard expressed distraught when he heard Adams had lied about the relationship. Leonard previously defended Adams when the allegations first came to light. There are also allegations that Breedlove was only 17 when the sexual relationship started, bringing up memories of the sex scandal that tainted former mayor Neil Goldschmidt‘s legacy after he admitted to sex with his 14-year-old babysitter.

HAVE YOUR SAY
Should the mayor resign?
Add or view comments

“The part I’m having trouble with is the thing he did was to ask the young man to lie. That I’m having a hard time understanding,” said Leonard in a statement. Adams has no plans to resign as mayor.

Breedlove met Adams in April 2005 at the Oregon State Capitol when Breedlove was an intern for then Oregon House of Representatives member Kim Thatcher. Breedlove sought Adams out for advice on coming out of the closet. Later, the two spent time together and Adams attended Breedlove’s 18th birthday party.

Rumors of a sexual relationship surfaced in the fall of 2007, but Adams denied any sexual relationship at that time. Adams is currently in a relationship with reporter Peter Zuckerman.

How To Bake A Perfect Pizza On Your Grill With Padrino S Pizza And Pasta.Com

How to Bake a Perfect Pizza on Your Grill with Padrino s Pizza and pasta.Com

by

Padrinos Pizza and Pasta

Grill burgers, brats, steaks, chicken and pizza! Pizzas are meant to be baked hot and quick well suited for the heat of the grill. So it’s easy to make perfect pizzas in no time.

Pizzas make great summer food but no one wants to heat the oven up to 400 degrees in the summer. That’s okay fix it on the grill. Not only is it the slick way to bake pizzas in the summer, you’ll really impress your friends and family a backyard magician.

You will need a grill Italian food Seattle with a cover. You can use gas or charcoal though the charcoal will impart a slightly smoked flavor to your pizza.

It doesn’t take long to bake a pizza only eight or ten minutes if you are using a thin crust pizza without too many toppings. That’s with a hot grill. If you can turn the heat down a bit, they’ll take longer. Crusts tend to be crisper when baked longer.

YouTube Preview Image

The trick to baking pizzas on the grill is to not burn the crust, the bottom, where the heat from the coals is concentrated. When we first started baking pizzas on the grill, we elevated the pizza onto the second shelf or used a couple old bricks to jack it up. Then we discovered that we could simply slide a cookie sheet under the pizza pan to insulate the pizza. There’s no need to elevate the pizza; just set the pizza pan on a large sheet.

If you like to use a pizza stone, you can do that on the grill. You can either use a peel or slip the pizza right on the stone or make the pizza in a pan and put the pan on the stone.

We always make thin crust pizzas. We like the crispness of thin crusts. And they’re quicker. You don’t have to let the dough rise and you can load the toppings right on the unbaked dough. (In our test kitchen, we’ve timed Debbie who makes pizzas a lot at sixteen minutes from start to finish. Regular humans should be able to make a thin crust pizza, including mixing the dough, in twenty minutes.)

Here’s how to bake your pizza:

1. If you are using a baking stone, start the grill and place the baking stone on the top shelf of your grill. You will want the stone very hot so let it heat for 20 minutes or so before you add the pizza.

2. Mix the dough according to package or recipe directions just as if baking for the oven.

3. Shape the dough into a thin crust pizza, either on the counter if you are using a stone and peel, or in a pizza pan.

4. Spread a thin layer of marinara or white sauce on the dough. For a white sauce, consider dips, ranch dressing, or sour cream.

5. Spread the toppings over the sauce. Don’t pile the goodies on the pizza too deep; they tend to insulate the crust from the essential top heat.

6. Place the pizza in the grill as explained above, either on a stone or in pan with a stone or another pan beneath. Set the timer we set it for eight minutes and then check for doneness by lifting the edge of the crust. If your grill doesn’t bake evenly, and most don’t, turn the stone or pan 180 degrees about half way through baking.

7. Once done, immediately remove the pizza from the grill, and if you are using a stone, from the stone. (If you don’t remove the pizza from the stone, it will continue to bake.

Visit at:- http://www.padrinospizzaandpasta.com/bellevue-desserts.html

Seattle Pizza & Pasta Takeout and DeliveryIf you prefer to indulge in steaming hot pizza and freshly made dinner specialties in the comfort of your home, we offer convenient takeout and delivery services. Call us after a hard day at the office, and we will bring piping hot pizza, pasta, fresh salads, or sandwiches right to your front door. Or, you can call from work and pick up your order from our pizza restaurant on your way home.http://www.padrinospizzaandpasta.com/seattle.htmlhttp://www.

Article Source:

ArticleRich.com

Facebook acquires Instagram for US$1 billion

Thursday, April 12, 2012

The popular social networking site Facebook agreed to purchase the Instagram photo-sharing mobile app for US$1 billion in cash and stock Monday.

The app, which can be used to apply faux-vintage filters to photographs, allows users to share photos with one another both directly and through posts to social networking sites. Instagram was founded less than two years ago by two Stanford University graduates near San Francisco, California and the purchase is one of the largest acquisitions in Facebook history following after a failed takeover bid in early 2011 which had been declined by Instagram.

Facebook, despite its prominence as the largest website for social networking in the world, has had difficulties expanding into the mobile market, particularly the realm of mobile advertising. As of yet, Facebook lacks an advertising platform for its apps and has yet to capitalize off the boom in mobile phone use that Instagram is intertwined with.

We think the fact that Instagram is connected to other services beyond Facebook is an important part of the experience.

Facebook co-founder Mark Zuckerberg noted the importance of the ability to post to multiple social media sites at once in a post. He wrote on his personal timeline, “We think the fact that Instagram is connected to other services beyond Facebook is an important part of the experience.” He said Facebook “plan[s] on keeping features like the ability to post to other social networks, the ability to not share your Instagrams on Facebook if you want, and the ability to have followers and follow people separately from your friends on Facebook.”

Many other small services that Facebook has acquired, namely Gowalla, Hot Potato, and FriendFeed, were all shuttered shortly after acquisition. The co-founder of Instagram, Kevin Systrom, in a company blog post, has denied any claims that Instagram would share the fate of these past services. “It’s important to be clear that Instagram is not going away. We’ll be working with Facebook to evolve Instagram and build the network. We’ll continue to add new features to the product and find new ways to create a better mobile photos experience,” he wrote.

Many reasons have been put forth for the purchase, and Zuckerberg commented, “for years, we’ve focused on building the best experience for sharing photos with your friends and family. Now, we’ll be able to work even more closely with the Instagram team to also offer the best experiences for sharing beautiful mobile photos with people based on your interests.”

Ford’s US auto sales spike, surpassing GM

Wednesday, March 3, 2010

Ford Motor Company said on Tuesday that its sales in the United States rose 43% in February compared to the same period last year, as the automaker outsold rivals Toyota and General Motors.

The strength of our new products … are resonating with customers

Ford said that total sales improved to 142,285 units, compared to 141,951 units sold by GM. Additionally, Ford said that its share of the total US car market rose to 17%, up from 14% a year ago. The increase was better than analysts had predicted, and Ford’s stock rose to a five-year high in morning trading, before declining later in the day. Ford’s sales were significantly influenced by a 74% increase in fleet sales to businesses. Rental car agencies alone accounted for around 30,000 units sold. Sales to retail consumers increased only 28%.

The increases were led by sales of two sedans, the Fusion and Taurus, which rose 166.5 and 93.3% respectively, although sales of other models such as SUVs and pickup trucks also increased. Both models were significantly redesigned last year, and analysts said that improved quality from such cars were driving the increases.

Other companies also reported February sales today, nearly all reporting sales gains as well, although none as large as those of Ford. Toyota was the sole exception to the sales gains, as their sales declined 8.7%, as the company was faced with a global recall during the month that led to a temporary stoppage of production for some models.

“The strength of our new products … are resonating with customers,” said Ken Czubay, Ford’s vice president of sales and marketing. However, he believed that traditional Toyota customers were not buying rival autos, but rather awaiting the results from the recalls.

Debian closes FTP mirrors for download

This article features first-hand journalism by Wikinews members. See the collaboration page for more details.
This article features first-hand journalism by Wikinews members. See the collaboration page for more details.

Wednesday, May 10, 2017

On April 25, Debian announced on its website the decision to close its File Transfer Protocol (FTP) services on November 1, 2017. This decision was motivated by efficiency issues with FTP protocol as well as FTP clients, its low usage, and its high effort required to maintain the FTP servers.

The news item included a list of the services to be closed, ftp.debian.org and security.debian.org, both of which contain an FTP server. Users were directed to use the same URL over HTTP.

Wikinews interviewed several members of the Debian project about this decision.

[edit]

Let Face Painting Add Some Color To Your Kid’s Birthday Party}

Submitted by: Ilse Wilkins

Are you planning a birthday party for your child? Then you’re probably looking for some birthday party activities. Why not including face painting as part of the party? Here are some guidelines to get you started in face painting as quickly as possible.

Kids love having their faces painted. Whether they are three or nine, kids get a thrill out of having characters and shapes painted on their face. The great thing about children’s face painting is that it takes very little time to do and it’s a low-cost investment.

The first thing you need to do is determine what kinds of paintings you’ll do. If you organise a themed birthday party, come up with several face painting ideas within that birthday theme.

YouTube Preview Image

For example, if your child wants a Sesame Street themed birthday party, brainstorm some face painting ideas based on the cartoon characters from the show: Elmo, Big Bird, Cookie Monster. When you have several ideas, sketch them out on paper so that you’ll have a general guide when you get ready to paint the kids’ faces.

You may be feeling a little scared and nervous about trying to paint cartoon characters – don’t be. Start with a simple outline sketch of the character. Use the main color to fill it in. Then add features, like ears, eyes, mouth and nose. It does not have to be perfect for the kids to love them.

If you don’t want to attempt painting cartoon characters at first, start with the basics. Keep your face paintings to simple objects. Some simple, all-time favorite face painting designs for kids are: clouds, hearts, rainbows, cupcake, ice cream cone, balloons, butterfly, smiley face, their name.

It is also important that you practice and try out your face painting designs before the birthday party, especially if you have never done face painting before. This just ensures that you have a steady hand and eye when the big day comes. You can practice on the back of your hand or on your own kids’ faces.

The more practice you can get in ahead of time, the easier it will be to paint lots of kids’ faces at the birthday party. Plus, you won’t be nearly as nervous and afraid of messing up, if you’ve had lots of practice. So the next time you organise your kid’s next birthday party, include face painting and add some color and excitement to the party!

About the Author: Ilse Wilkins has organised dozens of successful birthday parties and would like to recommend

bestkidsbirthday.com

, the #1 source for

birthday party theme supplies

.

Source:

isnare.com

Permanent Link:

isnare.com/?aid=184540&ca=Parenting }

Eastern Conference wins 2008 NBA All-Star Game

Monday, February 18, 2008

Eastern Conference 134 128 Western Conference

The Eastern Conference defeated their Western Conference counterparts at the 2008 National Basketball Association All-Star Game held at New Orleans Arena in New Orleans, Louisiana on Sunday. The final score was 134-128.

The East took an early 11 point lead in the first 5 minutes, due to an injured Kobe Bryant only playing 2 minutes before sitting on the bench for the rest of the game. “There’s one player we really, really missed, and that was Kobe,” said West coach Byron Scott. The West later reduced the lead to 2 points, but at halftime, the East led 74-65.

The West trailed by 13 at the beginning of the fourth quarter, but rallied behind New Orleans point guard Chris Paul, who had seven assists in the final period. With 2:48 remaining, Brandon Roy scored a layup on an assist from Paul, giving the West a 122-119 lead, their biggest lead of the game.

The East then answered back with two three-pointers from Ray Allen, before Chris Paul tied the game with a three-pointer of his own. However, the East would then take the lead and the game with layups from Dwyane Wade and Allen, as well as a driving dunk from LeBron James. A Brandon Roy three-pointer put the game within three points with 8.7 seconds left, but 3 free throws from Ray Allen sealed the win for the East.

“The fourth quarter was crazy,” said Chris Paul. “We were down 13. We picked up the intensity. We took the lead a few times but Ray Allen was unbelievable the way he shot the ball. And that last dunk by LeBron, we had two people on him but that still wasn’t enough.”

With 27 points, 8 rebounds, and 9 assists, James was named the All-Star Game’s Most Valuable Player for the second time in his career. Some television commentators also considered Ray Allen a likely choice for the award, with 14 of his 28 points coming in the final 3 minutes of the game. “I think Ray Allen had a heck of a shooting night,” James said after being presented the award.

Contents

  • 1 Other All-Star events
    • 1.1 T-Mobile Rookie Challenge
    • 1.2 Haier Shooting Stars Competition
    • 1.3 Playstation Skills Challenge
    • 1.4 Foot Locker Three-Point Shootout
    • 1.5 Sprite Slam Dunk Contest
  • 2 Related news
  • 3 Sources

Eastern Conference wins 2008 NBA All-Star Game

Monday, February 18, 2008

Eastern Conference 134 128 Western Conference

The Eastern Conference defeated their Western Conference counterparts at the 2008 National Basketball Association All-Star Game held at New Orleans Arena in New Orleans, Louisiana on Sunday. The final score was 134-128.

The East took an early 11 point lead in the first 5 minutes, due to an injured Kobe Bryant only playing 2 minutes before sitting on the bench for the rest of the game. “There’s one player we really, really missed, and that was Kobe,” said West coach Byron Scott. The West later reduced the lead to 2 points, but at halftime, the East led 74-65.

The West trailed by 13 at the beginning of the fourth quarter, but rallied behind New Orleans point guard Chris Paul, who had seven assists in the final period. With 2:48 remaining, Brandon Roy scored a layup on an assist from Paul, giving the West a 122-119 lead, their biggest lead of the game.

The East then answered back with two three-pointers from Ray Allen, before Chris Paul tied the game with a three-pointer of his own. However, the East would then take the lead and the game with layups from Dwyane Wade and Allen, as well as a driving dunk from LeBron James. A Brandon Roy three-pointer put the game within three points with 8.7 seconds left, but 3 free throws from Ray Allen sealed the win for the East.

“The fourth quarter was crazy,” said Chris Paul. “We were down 13. We picked up the intensity. We took the lead a few times but Ray Allen was unbelievable the way he shot the ball. And that last dunk by LeBron, we had two people on him but that still wasn’t enough.”

With 27 points, 8 rebounds, and 9 assists, James was named the All-Star Game’s Most Valuable Player for the second time in his career. Some television commentators also considered Ray Allen a likely choice for the award, with 14 of his 28 points coming in the final 3 minutes of the game. “I think Ray Allen had a heck of a shooting night,” James said after being presented the award.

Contents

  • 1 Other All-Star events
    • 1.1 T-Mobile Rookie Challenge
    • 1.2 Haier Shooting Stars Competition
    • 1.3 Playstation Skills Challenge
    • 1.4 Foot Locker Three-Point Shootout
    • 1.5 Sprite Slam Dunk Contest
  • 2 Related news
  • 3 Sources